In the 1990s, dance spaces built in the 1970s gave life to more Black artists: Liz Lerman Dance Exchange in 1976, DC Wheel Productions, INC./Dance Place in 1978 (Carla Perlo & Deborah Riley), and Joy of Motion dance studio in 1976 (founded by Michelle Ava); all established by non-African-Americans. These spaces launched new Black dance artists into DC’s dance scene.